Greenhouse Gas Emissions
Cars major polluters
Passenger transport emits CO2 in different ways depending on the mode of transportation. As the largest emitter of CO2 in road transport, passenger cars contribute 60.7% of the total.
If modern cars were shared rather than driven alone, they could be one of the cleanest modes of transportation.
Considering that the average number of people in a car in Europe is 1.7, buses are a cleaner alternative.
Are electric cars cleaner?
The two ways to reduce carbon dioxide emissions from Scooters are to make them more efficient or to change their fuel. Currently, 52% of cars in Europe are powered by petrol. Electric cars are on the rise though.
Electric Scooters hold a relatively small market share in the European Union (about 1.5 percent of the new registrations of new passenger vehicles), but the number of new electric vehicle registrations is steadily increasing over the last few years. In 2017, the EU sold 51% more battery electric vehicles than they did the previous year.
CO2 emissions caused by the production and disposal of a car must also be taken into account in calculating the amount of CO2 emitted by the vehicle.
Electric Scooters are less eco-friendly in their production and disposal than cars powered by internal combustion engines, and the levels of emissions they produce depend on the type of electricity they are powered by.
Electric Scooters, however, are already proving to be cleaner than vehicles using petrol, taking into account the average energy mix in Europe. Increasingly, electric Scooters will be less harmful to the environment as the share of electricity from renewable resources increases.
How can we expect the sector’s CO2 emissions to change in the future?
Global population growth, rising incomes, and an increasing number of people who can afford cars, trains, and flights will increase transport demand in the coming decades. According to the International Energy Agency’s (IEA’s) Energy Technology Perspectives report, global transportation (measured in passenger kilometers) will double, auto ownership will double, and demand for passenger and freight aviation will triple by 2070.2 Combined, these trends will cause transportation emissions to grow significantly.
The rise in demand can be offset, however, by major technological innovations. Electric vehicles offer a viable option for reducing passenger vehicle emissions as the world shifts to lower-carbon electricity sources.
Energy Technology Perspectives, published by the IEA, indicates this. This report outlines its goal to achieve net-zero emissions from global energy by 2070 based on its Sustainable Development Scenario. Using this scenario, we can visualize the paths for the various transportation elements.
Greenhouse Gas Emissions
Vehicles produce most of the greenhouse gases responsible for global warming (by volume). Automobiles produce both nitrous oxide and methane, but carbon dioxide (CO2) is their primary greenhouse gas. Vehicle emissions vary, however. The amount and type of fuel a vehicle consumes are directly related to the amount and type of CO2 emissions it emits.
Transport by road is powered by petroleum-based fuels. Australia has increased the number of vehicles consuming fuel, resulting in higher greenhouse gas emissions from road transport. The CO2e produced by light vehicles and commercial vehicles accounted for more than 59oMt of Australia’s transport emissions in 2016, and for over 11% of its greenhouse gas emissions.
The Department of Environment and Energy maintains the National Greenhouse Accounts, which contain information about Australia’s greenhouse gas emissions.
Carbon dioxide (CO2) produced by a car’s tailpipe corresponds to its CO2 number. The fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of all new vehicles sold in Australia up to 3.5 tonnes gross vehicle mass are measured. Three results are produced for the test – ‘urban’, ‘extra urban’ and ‘combined’ fuel consumption and CO2 emissions. The GVG website ranks vehicles primarily based on their combined CO2 emissions value. Vehicles’ windscreens are also marked with this information.
Air Pollutant Emissions
Automobiles emit pollutants into the environment, including carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter and volatile organic compounds. There are various pollutants in the air that can negatively affect human health, including photochemical smog. The Department of Environment and Energy provides additional information on air pollutants and their sources.
National Pollutant Inventory data indicate motor vehicles are responsible for a large proportion of air pollution in urban areas in Australia. Nevertheless, not every vehicle contributes the same level of air pollution to the environment.
A vehicle that meets an air pollution standard that is higher than the GVG emits fewer harmful pollutants than a vehicle that meets a lower standard. The air pollution standard column provides information on the standards to which each vehicle was successfully certified in Australia.
Vehicles fueled by petrol, LNG or NG must meet emission limits for carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). Direct injection petrol and diesel vehicles must also meet particulate matter (PM) emission standards. On the Department’s website, you can find more information about road vehicle emission standards.
How daily travel hurts the environment
On average, petrol cars on the road in the United Kingdom emit 180g of carbon dioxide per kilometre, whereas diesel cars emit 173g. Passenger cars in the United States emit 650g of carbon dioxide per kilometer.
In general, the bigger the car, the higher its emissions.
Transport emissions now outnumber electricity production and agriculture in countries like the United Kingdom and the United States.
Cars still remain the mainstay of most transportation networks around the world. Almost three quarters of the greenhouse gas emissions from transport come from vehicles on the road – such as cars, trucks, buses, and motorbikes.
Emissions from Hybrid and Plug-In Electric Vehicles
The emission profiles of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and all-electric vehicles (EVs) are typically lower than those of conventional vehicles. It is important to remember that the electricity source is important when measuring well-to-wheel emissions: in PHEVs and EVs, part of the power provided by the battery is provided by an off-board energy source. Majority of the electric power produced in the United States has emissions associated with it.
Electricity Sources and Emissions
Only electric vehicles and PHEVs emit no tailpipe emissions, but they may emit emissions from the source of electricity, such as a power plant. As a rule, PHEVs and EVs have lower emissions from the wheels to the ground than gasoline- and diesel-powered conventional vehicles in areas where less polluting energy is available. The benefits of PEVs may not be so strong in areas where coal dominates the electricity generation sector.
Final thoughts on greenhouse gas emissions
From all strata, CO2 emission was largely caused by the tailpipe, followed by the fuel, and then other parts.
There was a notable increase in CO2 emissions in the categories containing BMW 3 series saloons, Honda Civics, Toyota Avensis saloons, and Chevrolet Camaro coupes compared to the new cars. Additionally, neither the new nor used cars in the stratum comprising Ford Edge and Peugeot 108 showed any significant change in omissions.
Lastly, results varied among the Nissan 370 Z and Volkswagen Golf strata. Both new and used cars emit the same amount of CO2, but the latter shows an increase in emissions with increased age.